# Arch | Classification of Arches - Ishwaranand

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# ARCHClassification of Arches

• An arch may be defined as a mechanical arrangement of wedge-shaped blocks of stones or bricks mutually supporting each other also supported at the end by piers or abutments.
• This function of an Arch is to carry that weight of the structure above the opening because of their shape the block support each other with mutual of their personal weight also the structure remains in position on the support.
• Intrados- Here is the inner curve from an arch.
• Soffits- It is the inner surface of an arch.
• Extrados- It is the outer curve of an arch.
• Key- It is the curve-shaped unit fixed at the crown of the arch.
• Springing- It is an imaginary line joining the springing points of either end.
• Abutment- That is the end support about an arch.
• Voussoirs- This is a wedge-shaped unit of masonry forming an arch.

#### Precast Arches

• Precast arches remain installed on an in-situ concrete strip foundation also are placed end-to-end to produce the desired structure length.
• Wherever large expanses are to be crossed, for example, o flood plain, multiple arches span equal placed side at the side and provide an aesthetically pleasing structure.
• The precast arch system is suitable for highway, rails, mining and hydraulic applications.

#### Type of Arches

• Flat arch when the shape of an arch is usually flat, it is called a flat arch.
• Segment arch when the centre of the arch is situated below the springing line, it is called a segmented arch.
• Semi-circular arch when the shape of the arch is semi-circular and centre of arch lies on the springing line it is called as semi-circular.
• Semi-elliptical arch When the shape of an arch is Semi-elliptical it is called a Semi-elliptical arch such arch has more than one centre.
• Inverted arch Such arch is used to increase the bearing capacity of the soil.
• Pointed arch That type of arch consists of two curves, which imply meeting at the apex of a triangle.
• Reliving arch When the arch is constructed over a wooden joint or a flat arch it is known as relieving arch.
• Horse-shoe arch When the shape of an arch is horse-shoe type it ie called a horseshoe arch.
• Stilled arch When the shape of an arch is Semi-circular type and attached at the tops of two vertical portion itis known as Stilled arch.
• Venetian Arch When the depth at the crown is more than that the springing line it is known as Venetian Arch.
• Florentine Arch That type of arch is similar to the Venetian arch excepting that it has a shape from a semi-circular curve.

## Classification of Arches

#### Based on Shape

1. Flat Arch
2. Segmental Arch
3. Semi-circular Arch
4. Semi-Elliptical Arch
5. Inverted Arch
6. Pointed Arch
7. Horse Shoe Arch
8. Venetian Arch
9. Florentine Arch
10. Stilled Arch

#### Based on Centers

1. One Centre arch
2. Two Centre arch
3. Three Centre arch

#### Based on Workmanship

1. Rough Arch
2. Axed or Rough Cut Arch
3. Gauged Arch
Based on Material
1. Stone Arch
2. Brick Arch
3. Concrete Arch