Human Population Importance & Types of Population - Ishwaranand

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Human Population Importance & Types of Population

Human Population Importance & Types of Population


It is defined as a group of interacting and interbreeding organisms of the same species living in a particular area in unit time.
e.g. The number of fishes present in a pond forms fish population or number of tigers living in a forest forms tiger population of that forest.
Thus, the population is the smallest unit of the community.
Population, Human Population, types of the population, Population of a village or district or state or nation or the world, types of population,

HUMAN POPULATION

It is several human beings living in the unit area, in unit time. e.g. Population of a village or district or state or nation or the world.
The study of the human population is called demography. Importance of  Population (Demography):
  1. It helps to study the increase or decrease the size of a population.
  2. It helps in the planning of the national economy.
  3. It helps to find out the need and problems of the population.
  4. It helps to fulfil the present and future needs and problems of a population.

Types of the population:-

Any population exhibits certain group properties not shown by individual members of the group such as- 
  1. Natality
  2. Mortality
  3. Sex ratio
  4. Age distribution and
  5. Density
Population, Human Population, types of the population, Population of a village or district or state or nation or the world, types of population,

Natality-

  • Natality or birth rate is the number of individuals born per unit time, per unit area, per 1000 individuals of a population. Greater the natality larger will be the size of the population.
  • The maximum possible rate of reproduction of a population is called potential.
  • The observed rate of reproduction of the population is called realized or ecological natality.

Natality is calculated by the following formula,


                Total no. newborns in a year a particular area (n)
Natality=-----------------------------------------------------------------------------X 1000
                 Average the population of the year of that particular area (N)

  •  If 100 babies are born in a population of 5000 n a year, then the natality, i.e. birth rate will be as follows
                 100
Natality =---------X 100
                5000
            =20 per thousand.

Mortality-

  • Mortality or death rate is the number of individuals that die per unit time, per unit area, per 1000 individuals of the population.
  • The size of the population decreases if its mortality is high. Death of the individual due to ageing is called potential mortality.
  • Death due to factors like diseases, accidents, etc, is called realized mortality. Realized mortality is higher than potential mortality.

Mortality is calculated by the following formula,


                       No. Of deaths in a year in a particular area (n)
Mortality=----------------------------------------------------------------x 1000
                  The average population of that year in that area (N)

  • If the total death in a population of 5000 is 50 in a year, then the mortality of that population will be follows
                     50
Mortality = ----------x 1000
                     5000 
                = 10 per thousand

Sex-ratio:

  • The sex ratio is the number of females per 1000 males of a population. Actually, the ratio should be more or less the same, but variations occur due to various reasons.

Sex ratio is calculated by the following formula,

                     Number of females
Sex ratios =--------------------------
                            1000 male
Sex ratio in India:
Year
Females per 1000 males
1961
941
1971
930
1981
934
1991
937
2001
933
  • Kerala is the only state where the proportion of females is higher than males. Preference for a male child, poverty and low status of women in the society are the prime reasons behind this unequal ratio.
  • A high mortality rate among women in their reproductive age is also responsible for a decrease in the number of females.
  • If in a population, females are more, then it is called feminine population, whereas, if males are more, it is called masculine.

Age structure-

  • It is the age-wise distribution of the individuals of a population into groups. Generally, the members of a population can be divided into the following three age groups,
  1. Pre-productive group: 1-14 years (children).
  2. Reproductive group: 15-60 years (adults).
  3. Post-productive group: 60 years and above (old people).
In India, according to the census, the age structure is described as
Year  / Age
1-14 years
15-60 years
6-yrs & above
1971
42%
54.5%
3.5%
1981
39.72%
54.07%
6.21%
1991
36%
57.59%
6.41%
2001
30.8%
64.3%
4.9%
  • If the population mainly consists of a pre-productive group, it is said to be an expanding population.
  • If it is mainly made up of the post-productive group, then it is called a declining population.
  • A population predominantly consisting of a reproductive group is a growing population.

Density-

  • Density is the total number of individuals living per unit area at a specific time. Density is the calculated formula the following formula:
  • D = n/a
  • Where, D = density; n = a number of individuals; a = area in square kilometers.
  • Density is calculated by knowing the number of people staying in a particular area and taking into consideration the area of that place.

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