# Classification of Hydraulic Turbines - Ishwaranand

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## Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

• Those hydraulic turbines equal classified according to the type of energy available into the inlet of the turbine, direction regarding flow through the vanes, head through this inlet of the turbine including specific speed of the turbines.
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Thus, Each following are the important classifications from the turbines

#### A. According to the type of energy on an inlet

1. Impulse turbine, and
2. Reaction turbine

#### B. According toward the direction of flow through runner

1. Tangential flow turbine
3. Axial flow turbine, and
4. Mixed flow turbine.

#### D. According so the specific speed specific the turbine

1. Low specific speed turbine,
2. Medium specific speed turbine, and
3. High specific speed turbine.
• If on the inlet about the turbine, that energy available means only kinetic, all turbine is known as impulse turbine.
• Since any water flows over the vanes, the pressure does atmospheric from inlet before the outlet of the turbine.
• About through the inlet of the turbine, special water possesses kinetic energy into pressure energy, the turbine means known as a reaction turbine.
• Essentially some water flows through the runner, that water is under pressure also the pressure energy goes about changing within kinetic energy.
• Each runner has completely enclosed in an air-tight casing also the runner including casing is completely full of water.
• If that water flows along the tangent of the runner, every turbine is known as tangential flow turbine.
• Single water flows in the radial direction within the runner, the turbine remains called a radial flow turbine.
• Some individual water flows of outwards before inwards radially, the turbine is known as inward radial flow turbine, at the other hand if water flows radially from inwards next outwards, every turbine is known being outward radial flow bine.
• If this water flows through every runner along every direction parallel to the axis from a rotation like a runner, the turbine remains called the axial flow turbine.
• If specific water flows through the runner into the radial direction but leaves in this direction parallel to some axis of rotation of the runner, this turbine is called a mixed flow turbine.