History of C language or C Fundamentals - Ishwaranand

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History of C language or C Fundamentals

C Fundamentals

History of C Language

  • C is a programming language developed about AT also T's Bell Laboratories from the USA in 1972. That was designed including written by any man named Dennis Ritchie.
  • Through that late seventies, C began to replace any further familiar languages from that time similar PL/I, ALGOL, etc. NO one pushed C. That happened made the official Bell Labe language. Therefore, externally either advertisement, C's reputation spread including its pool from users grew. Ritchie seems to possess been rather surprised that then many programmers preferred C to older languages like FORTRAN or PL/I, either this newer one like Pascal also APL. But, that's what happened. Ritchie had taken inspirations to form language known as B, which was developed by Ken Thompson.
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Features \ Characteristics C Language

  • C is a general-purpose structured programming language.
  • C is a middle-level language.
  • C is a portable language.
  • C has compiled language.
  • C is simple to learn and implement.
  • C provides low-level support.
  • C provides several built-in functions.
  • Support for pointers, arrays, structures, functions etc.
  • Support for dynamic memory allocation.

Application of C Language

Embedded SystemsDevice drivers.
EditorsSystem software.
AntivirusNetwork protocols
Database software (DBMS)Operating System
Computer GamesConsumer Electronics Devices
Robotics

The C Character Set C language

Q) Explain the Character set of C language.
  • C uses the ASCII character set. It Supports  256 characters. Each character in C occupies 1 (one) byte of memory.
  • Each character denotes either alphabet, digit or special symbol applied to represent information.
Following obtain some valid alphabets, numbers also special symbols allowed into C. 

Alphabets:   A,B,C,......,Y,Z.
                     a,b,c,......,y,z.
Digits:          0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.

Special symbols:         ~ " ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ - + = | \ { } [ ] : ; " ' < > , . ? /

Keywords in C language

Q) What is a keyword? List a few of the C language.
  • Keywords remain this reserved words whose meaning must already be explained to each c compile: 
  • Some keywords are also called Reserved words' 
  • C supports 32 keywords. These are:
autodoubleintstruct
breakelselongswitch
caseenumregistertypedef
charexternreturnunion
constfloatshortunsigned
continueforsignedvoid
defaultgotosizeofvolatile
doifstaticwhile

Rules for using keywords C language:

  1. Some keywords cannot be utilised as variable names.
  2. The necessity of Every keyword is written within the lower case.
  3. Every keyword has fixed meaning and it cannot be changed.
  4. There are only 32 keywords; we cannot add our new keyword.

Identifiers C language

  • Identifiers are defined as the user-defined entity. identifier refers to the variable names and function name created by the programmer.
  • For e.g. int k, area;
  • Here variable k& area is known as identifiers.
  • The function names like main() getch(), print(), scant() are the identifiers.

Data types C language

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Q) Explain different data types in C language.
  • Data types define rage of allowed values and set of all possible operations on those values. Data types in C++ seat be classified supporting various categories as shown in fig.

Size and range of C language basic data types:

Q) write the size also a range from data types in C language.

Data TypeRangeSize
(Bytes)
Format
Specifiers
Char or singed Char-128 to +1271%c
 unsigned char0 to 255
1%c
int or signed int-32768 to +327672%d
unsigned int0 to 655352%u
long int or signed long int-2147483648 to +21474836474%Id
unsigned long int0 to 42949672954%Iu
float3.4E-38 TO 3.4E+384%f
double1.7E-308 to 1.7e+3088%If
long double3.4E-4932 to 3.4E+493210%Lf

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