Wednesday - June 7, 2023

Kaplan Turbine Working Principle

Kaplan Turbine

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Fig. A) Main Component of the Kaplan turbine
Fig. B) Kaplan turbine runner
  • During the vanes on the hub do adjustable, this turbine is known as a Kaplan Turbine, after this name of V Kaplan, an Austrian Engineer. That turbine is suitable wherever a large quantity of water at these low head is available.
  • Fig.B) shows individual runner of a Kaplan turbine, which consists of a hub fixed to the shaft. On the hub, this adjustable vane is fixed as shown in Fig. B

Some main parts from a Kaplan turbine remain

  1. Scroll casing,
  2. Guide vanes mechanism,
  3. Hub by vanes or runner of the turbine, and
  4. Draft tube.
Fig. A) shows all main parts of a Kaplan turbine. The water from penstock enters the scroll casing and then moves to the guide vanes.
From the guide vanes, the water turns through 90° and flows axially through the runner as shown in Fig. A)

The discharge through the runner is obtained as

Q=(π/4)(Da^2-Db^2)x Vf1
Do = Outer diameter from the runner
Db = Diameter from a hub, and
Vf1 = Velocity from flow at the inlet
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