Wednesday - June 7, 2023

Short notes on Heart Function


Short Notes on Heart Function


  • The occurrence of persistent high blood pressure is called hypertension such a person has systolic B.P. of more than 140mmHg and diastolic B.P. of more than 90mmHg.

Causes of Hypertension

  • The degenerative cause is arteriosclerosis other causes are addiction to smoking, alcohol, a fat-rich diet, obesity, emotional stress, excess secretion of epinephrine, aldosterone, renin, atherosclerosis etc.

Symptoms of Hypertension

  • Hypertension is commonly called a silent killer because it may present for years with no significant symptoms. The mild effect of hypertension is breathlessness, giddiness etc.
  • The severe effect of hypertension is the bursting of blood vessels of vital organs like eye, kidneys, brain etc.

Coronary Artery Disease

  • A condition in which the flow of blood to the heart is reduced due to blockage in the coronary artery is called CAD.

Causes of Coronary Artery Disease

  • The main cause is atherosclerosis i.e. deposition of fatty substances in the lining of the artery which results in the formation of a plaque that decreases the diameter of the lumen of the artery. As a result of this, heart muscles get an inadequate amount of blood.

Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease

  • Depending on the degree of damage to heart muscles due to obstruction, the symptoms may be in the form of mild chest pain called Angina pectoralis or a heart attack called myocardial infarction which may cause death.

Angina pectoralis

  • A condition of chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the cardiac muscles of the heart is called angina pectoralis.

Causes of Angina Pectoralis

  • The main cause is narrowing and hardening of coronary arteries due to there or arteriosclerosis, other Causes are wrong lifestyles, excess exertion, stress etc.

Symptoms of Angina Disease

  • Severe pain in the chest, compression of the chest, etc. The pain can spread into the neck, lower jaw, left arm and shoulder.

Heart Failure

  • Failure of the heart to pump the blood effectively is called heart failure.

Cause of Heart Failure

  • Hypertension, congestion of the lungs etc. cause progressive weakening of heart muscles which ultimately fails the heart.
  • Degeneration of heart muscles due to the ageing process, malnutrition, chronic anaemia, hyperthyroidism etc.


  • An electronic device used to maintain the rhythmicity of the heart artificially is called the artificial pacemaker. The natural pacemaker of the heart is the SA node when the SA node fails to regulate the rhythm of the heart, then an artificial pacemaker is used. The artificial pacemaker is implanted subcutaneously in the upper thoracic region.
  • The artificial pacemaker consists of a pulse generator, a lead and an electrode. The pulse generator consists of a solid lithium cell that generates impulses. the lead is in the form of wire which transmits the impulse while an electrode is connected to the site of the heart where the impulse is to be transmitted.

Last updated on Saturday - May 20th, 2023

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