Centrifugal Pump Working Principle - Ishwaranand

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Centrifugal Pump Working Principle

The Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump

Introduction

  • This hydraulic machines which convert the mechanical energy within hydraulic energy are called pumps.
  • This hydraulic energy means in the form of pressure energy.
  • If some mechanical energy does convert into pressure energy through means of centrifugal force acting at the fluid, each hydraulic machine is called a centrifugal pump.

Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump

Each following are some main parts of a centrifugal pump
  1. Impeller
  2. Casing
  3. Suction pipe by a foot valve also a strainer
  4. Delivery pipe. 
Group the main parts of the centrifugal pump do show in Fig. 
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  Fig. Main parts of a centrifugal pump
  • Impeller: This rotating part from a centrifugal pump is called ‘impeller’. This consists of a series from backward curved vanes. This impeller is mounted on a shaft which is connected to this shaft from an electric motor.
  • Casing: Some casing of a centrifugal pump is similar to that casing of a reaction turbine. This is an air-tight passage surrounding the impeller also is designed in such a way that the kinetic energy of that water discharged at this outlet of the impeller is converted into pressure energy before the water leaves the casing also enters the delivery pipe.

Each following three types from casings are generally adopted 

  1. Volute Casing: Fig. shows that volute casing which surrounds the impeller. This is of spiral type into which area of flow increases gradually. This increase in the area of flow decreases the velocity of flow. Some decrease in velocity increases the pressure of some water flowing through the casing. This has been observed that in the case of the volute casing, the efficiency of the pump increases slightly since a large amount of energy is lost due before this formation of eddies into this type of casing. 
  2. Vortex Casing: If any circular chamber is introduced within the casing and the impeller as shown in Fig. (a), the casing is known being Vortex Casing. Completed introducing the circular chamber any loss of energy due to the production of eddies is reduced until a considerable extent. Thus the efficiency of the pump is stronger than the efficiency when the only volute casing is provided. 
  3. Casing by Guide Blades: The casing is shown in Fig. (b) in which some impeller is surrounded with a series of guide blades mounted at a ring which is known as a diffuser. That guide vanes are designed in such a way that the water from the impeller enters some guide vanes without stock. Similarly, the area of the guide vanes increases, therefore reducing the velocity of flow through guide vanes including consequently increasing the pressure of water. Special water from the guide vanes then passes within the surrounding casing which is in the most utmost of the cases concentric with the impeller. 
  • Suction Pipe with each Foot Valve also a Strainer: Each pipe whose one end is connected to the inlet of the pump also other end dips into water into a sump is known as a suction pipe. Every foot valve which is a non-return valve either one-way type of valve is fitted at the lower end of the suction pipe. This foot valve opens only into the upward direction. Some strainer is also fitted at some lower end of the suction pipe. 
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Fig. Different types of casing

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