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Kaplan Turbine Working Principle

Kaplan Turbine

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Fig. A) Main Component of the Kaplan turbine

Fig. B) Kaplan turbine runner

  • During the vanes on the hub do adjustable, this turbine is known as a Kaplan Turbine, after the name of V Kaplan, an Austrian Engineer. That turbine is suitable wherever a large quantity of water at these low heads is available.
  • Fig.B) shows the individual runners of a Kaplan turbine, which consists of a hub fixed to the shaft. On the hub, this adjustable vane is fixed as shown in Fig. B

Some main parts from a Kaplan turbine remain

  1. Scroll casing,
  2. Guide vanes mechanism,
  3. Hub by vanes or runner of the turbine, and
  4. Draft tube.

Fig. A) shows all the main parts of a Kaplan turbine. The water from the penstock enters the scroll casing and then moves to the guide vanes.

From the guide vanes, the water turns through 90° and flows axially through the runner as shown in Fig. A)

The discharge through the runner is obtained as

Q=(π/4)(Da^2-Db^2)x Vf1


Do = Outer diameter from the runner

Db = Diameter from a hub, and

Vf1 = Velocity from flow at the inlet