This is the simplest type of door, especially suitable for narrow openings.
Every door, shown in Fig is formed of vertical bonds, called batten which is normally grooved, and fixed together by horizontal supports called as ledges.
Battens are 100 to 150 mm wide and 20 to 30 mm thick.
Ledges are 100 to 200 mm wide and 25 to 30 mm thick.
Three ledges are commonly provided top, middle and bottom, The door is hung to the frame through T-hinges of iron.
Battened Ledged & Braced Door
Those doors remain improved versions of battened also ledged doors. During which additional inclined or diagonal members, known braces are provided.
Therefore these doors can be applied for wider openings.
Some braces, 100 to 150 mm wide have the identical thickness as the ledges.
The braces must slope upwards from the handing side since they have to work as struts, to take compression.
Battened ledged, braced and framed doors.
This door is also an improved form of a simple battened and ledged door, in which the framework for the shutter is provided in the form of two verticals, known as styles.
Techniques are commonly 100 mm wide including 40 mm thick.
Three ledges are provided as usual. The total thickness of the style is adjusted equal to the thickness of ledges plus the thickness of battens.
Framed and Paneled Door
That type of door is generally provided in any type of building.
This door consists of a timber framework of stiles and rails which are grooved on the inside to receive one or more panels.
Framed including panelled doors are made in several designs to suit the working so as architectural qualifications.
The door may be single, double, three, four or six-panelled and so on.
The panels can be of timber, plywood, blockboard or hardboard. Timber panels are fixed inside the grooves in each frame.
Salient features of the frame and panelled door
Some stiles are connected from top to bottom.
Different rails, i.e. top rail, bottom rail, lock rail, and frieze rail are joined to the stiles.
Mullions are joined to the rails.
The bottom also lock rails are bigger than the single top and frieze rails.
Some width of stiles is regularly 100 mm and bottom lock rails last 150 mm wide.
The thickness of the shutter may vary from 30 mm to 50 mm.
Glazed or sash door
That type of door is used in residential as well as public buildings similar to hospitals, schools or colleges, etc. to supplement specific natural lighting provided by windows either to make the interior of one room visible from the adjacent one.
Glazed or sash doors are made in designs. They can be glazed fully or partially.
Fully glazed doors are provided in situations where sufficient light is required through the door opening as in the case of shopping or display centres, lobbies, entrance halls, etc.
While the case of partly glazed doors commonly the bottom 1/3th height of the door is panelled and the remaining 2/3th height is glazed.
In the case of part-glazed doors, the stiles are sometimes diminished at the lock rails to improve the elevation & to permit more area for glazing.
Rolling Steel Shutter Doors
These doors are commonly used for stores, shop fronts, godowns, etc.
Each door shutter acts like a steel curtain plus provides adequate protection including safety against burglars and fire.
All shutter consists of thin steel slabs also called laths and slates about 1.50 mm. thick interlocked to each other and coiled upon a specially designed pipe shaft (also known as a drum) mounted at the top of the opening.
The door shutter travels in two vertical steel guide channels installed at the end of the opening.
These guide channels are formed out of mild steel sheets and are thick enough to accommodate including keeping the shutter in position.
The shutter is counterbalanced by
means of a helical spring enclosed in the drum.
This type of door is considered suitable for shops, sheds, godowns, garages, etc. including in places where the use of hinges for fixing the shutter is to be avoided.
Depending on the size of the opening, including the space available on either side. The door can have a single, double or more number of leaves and shutters.
The door is provided with a top including bottom guide rails or runners inside which the shutters slide.
That opening is for a distance similar to the width of the shutter so that if the door is required to be opened. The door shutter occupies a unique position parallel to the wall face and also clears off the opening.
Some shutters are further furnished with locking arrangements, handles, stoppers, etc.
The type of door is commonly provided in paragraphs of public buildings similar to offices, banks, etc.
The door may have a single shutter or two shutters.
The shutters are fixed with special hinges known as double-action spring hinges which hold the shutter in a closed position when not in use.
They should have glazed shutters to enable the users to see the objects on another side of the door and avoid accidents.
As the springs return the door with force, the glazing should preferably be carried out by the use of wired glass or it should be protected by other suitable means.
The door shutter should have a peephole, fixed with glass. The peephole should be at eye level.
These types of doors are commonly provided in hotels, banks, offices, and other important buildings.
The door provides entrance on one side and exit on the other simultaneously keeping the opening automatically closed when not in use.
This type of door is mostly provided in places where there is regular foot traffic of people entering and going out of the building especially when it is air-conditioned or situated in a place where strong winds blow for most of the year.
The door essentially consists of four leaves radially attached to a centrally placed mullion in a circular opening.
The mullion or the central member is provided with a ball bearing at the bottom and a bush bearing at the top to enable the door to revolve smoothly without producing jerks.
At their edges, the leaves are provided with rubber pieces that fit flexibly against the inside face.
These doors have a pleasing appearance, simple construction, high strength and durability and less cost as compared with panelled doors.
Those doors are commonly done in residential so and public buildings.
The flush door shutter consists of a solid or semi-solid framed skeleton (core) covered on both faces with either plywood or a combination of cross bands and faces veneers giving a perfectly flush and jointless surface.
In the case of commercial-type plywood or face, a veneer is used for the face panel the door is termed a commercial-type flush door.
Similarly, if a decorative type of plywood or face veneer is used for the face panel, the door is called a decorative type of flush door.
Types of Flush door
Solid core type flush doors.
Hollow and Cellular core type flush doors.
Solid core type flush doors
The wooden frame used for holding the core consists of stiles, a top rail and a bottom rail, the width of each member being not less than 5 cm.
Each frame is made from selected species like timber.
Where it is not possible to use some species of timber for the frame, it is necessary to provide hardwood around the frame.
To achieve the required strength and durability. The width of the hardwood should be equal to the thickness of the core and its depth should not be less than 25 mm.
Hollow-core type flush door
In this type of door, the frame consists of stiles, top rail, bottom rails and a minimum of two intermediate rails each not less than 75 mm. in width.
The voids are equally distributed and the area of any void remains less than 50 cm2.
Instead of battens, rolls or strips of veneers can also be used for forming a core.
Plywood sheets or a combination of cross-bands and face veneers are used on both faces of the core.
The thickness of the plywood used should not be less than 6 mm.
Collapsible steel doors
Such doors are used in godowns, workshops, sheds, public buildings, etc., for providing increased safety and protection to the property.
Each door neither requires hinges for opening also closing nor each frame for hanging them.
It acts like a steel curtain that can be opened or closed by horizontal push.
Such a door is even provided in residential buildings where an opening is large but there is not enough space to accommodate leafed shutters.
The door is fabricated of vertical double channels 20 x 10 x 2 mm joined together among the hollows on the inside so that a vertical hole is created.
Such channel units are spaced 100 to 120 mm apart and are braced flatiron diagonals 10 to 20 mm wide and 5 mm thick.
These diagonals allow the shutter to open out or get closed. The shutters operate between two iron rails of a T-shape, one fixed to the floor and another to the lintel.