Definition of Computer Function - Ishwaranand

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Definition of Computer Function

Computer Parts Function


Q) explain the following
Q) define the following terms

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  • Assembler is a program that converts or translates the program written in assembly language code into equivalent machine language code.
  • The assembly language program contains pneumonic to perform the task. The assembler takes such program code as input and converts it into equivalent machine code for execution.
  • MASM(micro Assembler) and TASM (Turbo Assembler) are examples of popular assemblers.


  • The interpreter is the software tool that converts the high-level language code into executable machine code in a step by step manner".
  • The interpreter reads a single line of source code, converts it into machine code then executes it and up the next instruction for processing.


  • The compiler is the program that converts the high-level language program code into to low-level language code.
  • The difference between compiler and interpreter is that the compiler converts the entire program at once whereas interpreter does so in parts.
  • The C compiler accepts source code (i.e.c file) as the input, converts it into low-level language code called object code (i.e.obj file).


  • The linker is the program that performs the task of linking several object modules together into a single executable code.
  • The need for linker arises when a particular program is made up of several object modules.
  • The original source program may be in a high-level language.
  • Once others are converted within machine code, they must be linked commonly to last executed as a single program. That task is performed through the linker.
  • The linker resolves external references made into the individual modules.
  • The final object module created by linker has to be loaded into memory for execution.


  • The loader is the program that performs the task of loading the executable code into memory.
  • The executable code of program resides into secondary memory, to run it, that code must be loaded from secondary memory into primary memory. This task is done by the loader.
  • There are two types of loader, absolute loader and relocating loader.
  • Absolute loader the executable code into the memory location specified in the object modules.
  • Relocating loader on other hand, load the object code into a memory location which is decided at load time.

Arithmetic logic unit

  • The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Performs all the arithmetic calculations and takes logical decisions.
  • This unit takes the instructions to form the control unit, reads the data from memory and performs the operations on data, sends the result back to memory.
  • The arithmetic operations include +, _, *, /, % etc.
  • Logical operations include the operations like >, >=, <, <=, ==,!=.

Control unit

  • Control unit controls and co-ordinates the activities of all other units of the computer.
  • It accepts the instructions form unit or memory.
  • Decodes the accepted instruction.
  • Interprets the instruction and get it executed by sending the command to various hardware devices.


  • The program is a set of well-defined instructions arranged in a particular sequence to solve the problem"
  • The algorithms are expressed in the form of computer programs using programming languages like C, C++, Java, C#, etc.
  • Most of the programs are written in a high-level language, which must be converted into low-level language code using a compiler or interpreted.
The instruction in the program can be
  1. Type Declaration Instruction
  2. Arithmetic Instruction
  3. Control Instruction
  4. Input/ Output instruction.


  • Software is the collection of different programs that performs a specific task.
  • There are two types of software, application software and system software.
  • Application software is written for an individual user or enterprise to achieve a specific goal. for e.g music players, payroll system, Library management system, etc.
  • The system software is a program written to enhance the capabilities of the computer system for e.g Operation system, computer, interpreter, etc.

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