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# Arch | Classification of Arches

## Classification of Arch

• An arch may be defined as a mechanical arrangement of wedge-shaped blocks of stones or bricks mutually supporting each other and also supported at the end by piers or abutments.
• The function of an Arch is to carry the weight of the structure above the opening because of their shape the block support each other with mutual of their personal weight also the structure remains in position on the support.
• Intrados- Here is the inner curve from an arch.
• Soffits- It is the inner surface of an arch.
• Extrados- It is the outer curve of an arch.
• Key- It is the curve-shaped unit fixed at the crown of the arch.
• Springing- It is an imaginary line joining the springing points of either end.
• Abutment- That is the end support about an arch.
• Voussoirs- This is a wedge-shaped unit of masonry forming an arch.

#### Precast Arches

• Precast arches remain installed on an in-situ concrete strip foundation and also are placed end-to-end to produce the desired structure length.
• Wherever large expanses are to be crossed, for example, o a flood plain, multiple arches span equally placed side at the side and provide an aesthetically pleasing structure.
• The precast arch system is suitable for highways, rails, mining and hydraulic applications.

#### Type of Arches

• A flat arch when the shape of the arch is usually flat, it is called a flat arch.
• Segment arch When the centre of the arch is situated below the springing line, it is called a segmented arch.
• Semi-circular arch When the shape of the arch is semi-circular and the centre of the arch lies on the springing line it is called as semi-circular.
• Semi-elliptical arch When the shape of an arch is Semi-elliptical it is called a Semi-elliptical arch such an arch has more than one centre.
• Inverted arch Such an arch is used to increase the bearing capacity of the soil.
• Pointed arch That type of arch consists of two curves, which imply meeting at the apex of a triangle.
• Reliving arch When the arch is constructed over a wooden joint or a flat arch it is known as relieving arch.
• Horseshoe arch When the shape of an arch is horse-shoe type it is called a horseshoe arch.
• Stilled arch When the shape of an arch is Semi-circular type and attached at the tops of two vertical portions it is known as a Stilled arch.
• Venetian Arch When the depth at the crown is more than that of the springing line it is known as Venetian Arch.
• Florentine Arch That type of arch is similar to the Venetian arch except that it has a shape from a semi-circular curve.

## Classification of Arches

#### Based on Shape

1. Flat Arch
2. Segmental Arch
3. Semi-circular Arch
4. Semi-Elliptical Arch
5. Inverted Arch
6. Pointed Arch
7. Horse Shoe Arch
8. Venetian Arch
9. Florentine Arch
10. Stilled Arch

#### Based on Centers

1. One Centre arch
2. Two Centre arch
3. Three Centre arch

#### Based on Workmanship

1. Rough Arch
2. Axed or Rough Cut Arch
3. Gauged Arch

Based on Material Arch

1. Stone Arch
2. Brick Arch
3. Concrete Arch