Wednesday - September 13, 2023
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What is Floors | Basement, Ground And Upper

What are Floors | Basement, Ground And Upper

The purpose of each floors is to provide a level surface including supporting the occupant, furniture, etc.

Types of floors

  1. Basement floor
  2. Ground floor
  3. Upper floor

Basement floor

  • This construction of the floor beneath the ground surface is called the basement floor.
  • Basement ceiling elevation shall not be less than 7 feet higher than the finished floor.
  • Some smoke alarms shall be installed in the basement.
  • Full basement stairs shall become a light source to illuminate all treads also landings. Lights shall be completed by a switch located at the top also bottom of the stairs.
  • If appending a bedroom also the house is equipped beside a gas-fired appliance, some carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed in the basement.
Floors, types of Floors,Basement floor, Ground floor, Upper floor, Types the upper floor, Ribbed hollow tiled flooring, Precast concrete, Timber floor,

Ground floor

  • The floor resting directly on the ground surface is known as the Ground floor.

Upper floor

  • Special upper floors have the major problem of strength also stability since people are supported simply at their ends, at walls, beams, etc.
  • Upper floors do not have difficulty with damp resistance.

Types of the upper floor

Depending upon the materials used for the construction and arrangement of a beam, girder, etc. the upper floor may be classified into the following types:

  1. Steel joist and stone or precast concrete flooring
  2. Jack arch floor
  3. Reinforced cement concrete floor
  4. Ribbed or hollow tiled flooring
  5. Filler joists floor
  6. Precast concrete floor
  7. Timber floor
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Steel joist and stone or precast concrete flooring

  • These types of floors are quite common in a location where a stone slab is easily available in a span of 1 to 3 meters and widths 30 to 60 cm.
  • Where stone slabs are not available precast concrete slabs can be used.
  • The slabs are placed at the lower flange of rolled steel joists.
  • The spacing of steel joists depends upon the length of the available stone slab.
  • The joist has a clear span equal to the width of the room.
  • Some Space between the height of the slab and the top of the steel joist RSJ is filled including lime concrete. 

Jack arch floors

  • Jack arch is an arch of either brick or concrete, supported on the lower flange of mild steel joists R.S.J.
  • The joists are spaced 1 to 1.5 m centre to centre and are supported at their ends either on the walls or on longitudinal girders.
  • Each rise of the arch is retained equal to 1/12th of the span.
  • The bottom of the floor is not a plane; this is the only disadvantage of this floor.

Brick Jack Arch Flooring

  • Before starting the work, the RSJ should be properly secured in position.
  • Only first-class bricks should be used.
  • Successive rings should be properly interlocked.
  • Key bricks should be properly and tightly secured in rich mortar.
  • If the lime mortar is used, RSJ should be encased in cement mortar.
  • Top concrete including flooring should not be laid saving the brickwork is correctly cured.
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Cement concrete Jack Arch Flooring

  • Cement concrete Jack Arch Flooring is made of 1:2:4 cement concrete, supported on the lower flanges of M.S. joists.
  • The development of concrete jack arches is comparatively simple. The centring consists of a 3 mm thick mild steel plate, bent to the shape of an arch and having pair of holes at the ends, spaced at 75 cm c/c.
  • The centring plate is supported on the lower flange of joists through a pair of 12 mm, dia. Rods.
  • The ends of the rods pass through symmetrical holes of the centring plate and finally rest on the lower flange of R.S.J.
  • To check the deflection of the centring plate, a wooden packing block is tightly inserted between the M.S. plate and Rod.
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Reinforced Cement Concrete Floors

  • Floors of modern buildings stand invariably made from reinforced cement concrete R.C.C. because of some inherent advantages of that type of construction.
  • Concrete is powerful in compression but weak in tension. Though, it is suitably reinforced with the help of steel bars which take the complete bending tension.
  • Due to this, the overall thickness of R.C.C. floors is comparatively small, thereby reducing the self-weight of the floor itself.
  • R.C.C. floors are also comparatively fireproof and damp proof, The method of construction is also easy except that centring is required.
  • Those floors backside also be practised on large spans, also, therefore, and suitable for big size rooms, halls, etc.

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