Fire Proof Construction | Fire Protection
Fire Proof Construction
Fire resisting construction
Point to be kept in mind while designing a fire-resistance structure
- During a fire-resistant construction, some maximum value of non-combustible materials should do encouraged.
- The load-bearing walls or columns of masonry should be thicker, so that they may successfully act as a fire barrier for a considerable time
- As far as possible fire resisting material should be done in the construction of flooring.
- Flooring made of materials like concrete, brick, ceramic tiles, etc., is considered to be several suitable for fire-resistant construction.
- Reinforced concrete framed structures should be preferred before steel structures, as steel is liable to turn under heavy fire.
- These partition walls should move made up of fire-resistant material.
- Each load-bearing wall, also non-load-bearing wall, should face red with fire-resistive mortar
- Some doors, windows or exposed sides should make glazed and fitted including reinforced glass panels.
- As far as possible, a flat roof should be encouraged.
Fire-resisting properties of materials
Some fire-resisting properties of these different materials generally used for construction objectives as under
- First-class bricks moulded of good clay vessels stand exposed to fire for a considerable length of time.
- Fire-resistant parts of bricks depend on every method of construction of bricks also the component of fire-resistive material under bricks i.e. clay etc.
- This should be well established that brick masonry construction is several suitable for safeguarding each structure against fire hazards.
- The method of stone in a fire-resistive construction should do strictly restricted to some minimum
- Hot stone when subjected to sudden cooling develops cracks and can lead to failure of the structure.
- Granite & Limestone is the least recommended.
- Whereas compact sand-stone having fine grains may be used as it can stand the exposure to moderate fire without serious cracks
- Steel though incombustible becomes a very quiet fire resistance value.
- With the increase in temperature, the coefficient of elasticity of the metal falls, rendering the structural members soft and free to expand.
- When some members in this state get in contact with water, they tend to contract, twist about distort also thus the stability of the entire structure does endangered.
- The influence of fire on concrete varies including the nature of its coarse aggregate also its density.
- It has been found that aggregates obtained from igneous rocks containing higher calcareous content, tend to crack when subjected to fire.
- Coarse aggregates like foamed slag, cinder and brick are best suited for concrete which has to be fire-resistive.
- It must be noticed that in an average fire, some concrete surface gets disintegrated for a depth of about 25 mm. Hence a hunk of reinforced concrete is a fire-resistant construction, so the thickness of the transparent cover should be extra.
- Because of its cheap thermal conductivity, the change in volume on account of expansion about contraction is quite small.
- So it may be considered to be a good fire-resisting material.
- Though, when subjected to sudden including an extreme variation of temperatures, it fractures breadsticks.
- Through the usage of glass-reinforced including steel wire netting, such cracks seat be minimized
- Asbestos is a fibrous mineral that is combined with Portland cement to form a material having a great fire-resistive value.
- Asbestos cement products do extensively used for some construction about fire-resistive partitions, roofs, etc
Plaster or Mortar Protection
- Plaster or mortar is incombustible and by a suitable choice of the type of mortar, the walls or ceiling of a building can be made more fire-resistant
- Cement mortar is preferred to lime mortar.
- Timber must be a unique property of self-insulation also slow-burning.
- Additional fire resistance is achieved through the impregnation of timber with large quantities of fire-retarding chemicals.
Fire protection requirements for multi-storeyed buildings
- Structure:- That structural frame in work can move into R.C.C.
- Internal walls and partitions:- Internal walls could be in brick, hollow concrete blocks or tiles.
- Staircase:- The enclosing walls of the main staircase should have fire resistance.
- The introduction to the staircase should be within the doors.
- Some doors should do swing-type openings in the region of the escape.
- Basements:- The basement should be properly ventilated. The main staircase of the building should terminate at the ground floor and as far as possible the access to the basement should be through a separate staircase.
- Water-storage tank:- All multistoried buildings should a provision of an underground water storage tank of one to two lakhs litres capacity provided for fire fighting purposes. The tank should have an arrangement for replenishment of the water either by the municipal mains or by tube well.
- Fire Detection and Extinguishing System:- All multistoried buildings should have adequate provisions for fire detection and fire extinguishing.
Last updated on Monday - June 5th, 2023